Baklava: Discover The Joy Of This Sweet & Flaky Turkish Delight

Baklava is a rich and delectable pastry that holds a cherished place in Turkish cuisine. It consists of layers of paper-thin phyllo dough filled with a sweet mixture of finely ground nuts, such as pistachios or walnuts, and sweetened with a fragrant syrup or honey. Baklava showcases the perfect balance of textures—crispy and flaky on the outside, tender and moist on the inside. With its intricate preparation and indulgent flavours, baklava is not only a delightful treat but also a symbol of celebration, hospitality, and the culinary heritage of Turkey.

The early roots of baklava can be traced back to the Middle East, where layers of thin dough filled with nuts and sweetened with honey were enjoyed as early as the 8th century BC. The Byzantine Empire played a significant role in shaping the development of baklava, incorporating its own techniques and ingredients. Additionally, Persian cuisine made its mark by introducing the use of rosewater and other aromatic flavours to enhance the taste of baklava.

The introduction of baklava to Anatolia occurred during the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. As the empire grew, so did the influence of baklava, which became an integral part of Ottoman cuisine. Anatolia, being a cultural crossroads, allowed for the fusion of diverse culinary traditions, resulting in the unique flavours and techniques that characterise Turkish baklava today. The delicate layers, abundance of nuts, and use of sweet syrups became defining features, making Turkish baklava a culinary masterpiece renowned worldwide.

During the Ottoman Empire, baklava experienced remarkable promotion and popularity. It became highly esteemed and held a significant place in the empire's culinary culture. The Ottoman rulers, known for their lavish feasts, appreciated the indulgent nature of baklava, and it quickly gained favour among the elite and aristocracy.

Baklava's connection with the imperial kitchens further contributed to its prestige. Skilled pastry chefs, known as "aşçıbaşı," were appointed to the imperial kitchens, where they refined and perfected the art of making baklava. These master craftsmen experimented with various techniques, flavours, and presentations, pushing the boundaries of baklava-making.

The evolution of baklava techniques and variations during the Ottoman Empire was influenced by imperial patronage. The chefs developed new methods to create even thinner and more delicate phyllo dough, showcasing their expertise. They also experimented with different nut combinations, such as pistachios, almonds, and hazelnuts, offering a wider range of flavours.

5 Tips For Creating The Perfect Baklava

1. Thin and Even Layers: Achieve the perfect baklava texture by rolling out your phyllo dough as thinly as possible. Aim for consistency in thickness across all layers, ensuring even baking and a delicate, flaky result.

2. Quality Nuts: Choose fresh and high-quality nuts for the filling, such as pistachios, walnuts, or almonds. Grind them finely to ensure a consistent texture throughout the baklava, enhancing the overall taste and mouthfeel.

3. Proper Butter Application: Brush melted butter generously between each layer of phyllo dough. This step ensures moisture, richness, and crispness. Take care to evenly distribute the butter, including the corners, to prevent dryness or uneven browning.

4. Precise Cutting: Before baking, score the baklava into desired shapes, such as diamonds or squares. Ensure clean and precise cuts, allowing the syrup to penetrate and soak into each piece evenly during baking.

5. Syrup Saturation: Prepare a fragrant syrup by combining sugar, water, and flavourings like lemon or rosewater. Pour the syrup over the baklava while it's still warm from the oven. The baklava should be hot and the syrup at room temperature, allowing optimal absorption without making it soggy. Let it cool completely before serving to allow the flavours to meld together.

5 Baklava Variations That You Can Try

1. Pistachio Baklava: This variation replaces the traditional mixed nuts with finely ground pistachios. The vibrant green colour and distinct flavour of pistachios lend a delightful twist to the classic baklava, offering a rich and nutty experience.

2. Chocolate Baklava: For chocolate lovers, this variation incorporates layers of chocolate between the phyllo dough, creating a decadent and indulgent treat. The combination of crispy phyllo, sweet chocolate, and a hint of cinnamon or orange zest makes it a delightful fusion of flavours.

3. Fruit Baklava: This version adds a fruity twist to the traditional baklava by incorporating dried or fresh fruits like figs, apricots, or cherries into the nut filling. The natural sweetness and unique textures of the fruits complement the crunchy layers, adding a delightful burst of flavour.

4. Savoury Baklava: While baklava is traditionally sweet, a savoury variation can be a delightful surprise. Replace the sweet syrup with a savoury glaze or use a cheese and herb filling. This unconventional take on baklava is a savoury delight that can be served as an appetiser or part of a savoury pastry platter.

5. Vegan Baklava: This variation caters to those following a plant-based diet. Replace the butter with vegan butter or olive oil, and use alternative sweeteners like agave syrup or maple syrup. By making a few ingredient swaps, you can enjoy a delicious vegan baklava that retains the essence and flavours of the original recipe.

Recipe For Baklava

                                           Video Credits: Easy Turkish Recipes/YouTube


1 package (16 oz) of phyllo dough, thawed

1 ½ cups of unsalted butter, melted

2 cups of finely ground pistachios or walnuts

1 cup of granulated sugar

1 teaspoon of ground cinnamon

1 cup of water

1 cup of honey

1 tablespoon of lemon juice

Optional: a few drops of rosewater for syrup (if desired)


Preheat your oven to 350°F (175°C) and grease a 9x13-inch baking dish. 

In a bowl, combine the finely ground nuts, sugar, and ground cinnamon. Mix well to ensure the ingredients are evenly distributed. 

Unroll the phyllo dough and cover it with a damp kitchen towel to prevent it from drying out. 

Take a sheet of phyllo dough and place it in the greased baking dish. Brush it generously with melted butter. Repeat this process, layering phyllo sheets and buttering each layer, until you have about 8–10 layers. 

Sprinkle a thin layer of the nut mixture evenly over the buttered phyllo layers. 

Repeat the layering process with the remaining phyllo dough and nut mixture, ensuring that the top layer is phyllo dough. Remember to brush each layer with melted butter. 

Using a sharp knife, carefully cut the baklava into diamond- or square-shaped pieces. This will allow the syrup to soak into the layers. 

Bake the baklava in the preheated oven for about 45–50 minutes, or until it turns golden brown and crisp.

While the baklava is baking, prepare the syrup. In a saucepan, combine the water, honey, lemon juice, and optional rosewater. Bring the mixture to a boil, then reduce the heat and let it simmer for about 10 minutes. Remove it from the heat and let it cool slightly. 

Once the baklava is out of the oven, immediately pour the warm syrup over the hot baklava, ensuring it is evenly distributed. Allow the baklava to cool completely and absorb the syrup for a few hours or overnight. 

Serve the baklava at room temperature and enjoy!

Note: Baklava tastes best when stored in an airtight container at room temperature and consumed within a few days.