Pesto: 5 Ways To Make This Italian Sauce & Its Health Benefits

Pesto is a vibrant and flavourful Italian sauce renowned for its aromatic blend of basil, pine nuts, garlic, Parmesan cheese, and olive oil. The word "pesto" comes from the Italian "pestare," meaning to pound or crush, which refers to the traditional method of preparing the sauce using a mortar and pestle. This iconic sauce hails from the Liguria region of northern Italy, specifically Genoa, where it originated in the 16th century. In the early days, it was prepared mainly by fishermen and farmers who pounded the ingredients together to create a simple, yet delectable, accompaniment to their meals. Today, pesto has transcended regional boundaries and has become a beloved staple in Italian cuisine, celebrated globally for its versatility and ability to infuse dishes with the essence of fresh Mediterranean flavours.

Regional Variations

1. Ligurian Pesto (Pesto Genovese):

   - Originating in Genoa, Liguria, this classic pesto features fresh basil leaves, pine nuts, garlic, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Pecorino Sardo cheese, and extra virgin olive oil. It boasts a bright green colour and a delicate, herbaceous flavour, emphasising the essence of Mediterranean herbs and Ligurian olive oil.

2. Sicilian Pesto (Pesto alla Siciliana):

   - Hailing from Sicily, this variation replaces pine nuts with almonds and includes tomatoes and sometimes dried chilli flakes. It delivers a richer, spicier taste, reflecting the region's sun-soaked produce and the Arab influence on Sicilian cuisine.

3. Calabrian Pesto (Pesto alla Calabrese):

   - From Calabria, this pesto uses fiery Calabrian chilli peppers, along with olive oil, garlic, and pecorino cheese. It's vibrant and fiery, mirroring the region's reputation for spicy, bold flavours.

4. Pesto Trapanese:

   - Originating in Trapani, Sicily, this variety features almonds, tomatoes, basil, garlic, and pecorino cheese. The use of tomatoes sets it apart, offering a sweet and tangy twist that compliments seafood dishes, showcasing Sicily's coastal influence.

5. Pesto Rosso (Red Pesto):

   - Common in southern regions like Liguria and Sicily, this pesto combines sun-dried tomatoes, basil, almonds, garlic, and pecorino cheese. The vibrant red hue and intense tomato flavour highlight the abundant sun-drying tradition of southern Italy.

Pesto Pasta Perfection

Pesto's versatility extends to its harmonious pairing with various pasta shapes and types, each creating a delightful culinary experience. For long, thin pasta like spaghetti or linguine, the velvety pesto clings beautifully, coating every strand with its rich flavours. Short shapes such as penne or farfalle catch the sauce in their nooks and crannies, providing bursts of taste in every bite. Additionally, stuffed pasta like ravioli or tortellini pairs splendidly with pesto, as the sauce seeps into the delicate fillings, enhancing their taste.

To elevate pesto-based pasta dishes, complementary ingredients work wonders. Sun-dried tomatoes add a sweet tang, while roasted pine nuts offer a satisfying crunch. For added creaminess, a dollop of ricotta or creamy goat cheese balances the herbaceous intensity. Sautéed vegetables like cherry tomatoes, asparagus, or zucchini impart freshness and colour. Finally, a sprinkle of freshly grated Parmesan or Pecorino cheese completes the dish, adding a savoury umami note that perfectly complements the vibrant pesto flavours.

Preservation and Storage

Proper storage is essential to maintain the freshness and flavours of both homemade and store-bought pesto. When storing homemade pesto, transfer it to an airtight container, covering the surface with a thin layer of olive oil to prevent oxidation. Refrigerate for up to a week, ensuring the lid is tightly sealed after each use. To freeze pesto, place it in ice cube trays or small containers for individual servings, then transfer the frozen portions to a freezer-safe bag. Frozen pesto can be stored for up to six months. When using frozen pesto, allow it to thaw in the refrigerator or at room temperature before enjoying.

7 Health Benefits and Nutritional Value

1. Rich in Antioxidants: Pesto contains basil, which is packed with antioxidants like flavonoids and polyphenols, helping combat oxidative stress and reduce cell damage.

2. Heart-Healthy Fats: Olive oil, a primary ingredient in pesto, contains monounsaturated fats that promote heart health and reduce LDL cholesterol levels.

3. Nutrient-Rich Nuts: Pine nuts or other nuts used in pesto provide essential nutrients like protein, healthy fats, and vitamins, contributing to overall well-being.

4. Vitamins and Minerals: Pesto's ingredients, including basil, garlic, and cheese, provide vitamins A, C, K, calcium, and iron, supporting immune function and bone health.

5. Digestive Benefits: Garlic in pesto aids digestion, supporting gut health and potentially reducing the risk of gastrointestinal issues.

6. Weight Management: Pesto's nutrient density and satisfying flavours can aid in controlling appetite and supporting weight management goals.

7. Mental Well-being: The combination of basil and pine nuts may have mood-boosting effects, contributing to reduced stress and improved mental well-being.

Exploring the world of pesto reveals a captivating tapestry of traditional recipes and innovative variations that captivate taste buds and nourish the body. From its humble origins in Genoa, pesto has evolved into a culinary masterpiece celebrated across Italy and beyond. Rich in antioxidants, heart-healthy fats, and essential nutrients, pesto offers a flavourful and healthful addition to any dish. Whether savouring classic Ligurian pesto with pasta or experimenting with regional twists, this iconic Italian sauce embodies a passion for gastronomy, cultural heritage, and the joy of savouring each vibrant bite.

Recipe For Pesto Sauce

                                                Video Credits: Jamie Oliver/YouTube


2 cups fresh basil leaves, packed

1/2 cup pine nuts (you can also use walnuts or almonds)

3-4 garlic cloves

1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese

1/2 cup extra virgin olive oil

Salt, to taste

Freshly ground black pepper, to taste


Toast the Nuts: In a dry skillet over medium-low heat, lightly toast the pine nuts (or other nuts) until they become fragrant and slightly golden. Be cautious not to burn them. Remove from the heat and let them cool.

Prepare the Basil: Wash the basil leaves thoroughly and pat them dry with a paper towel. Make sure to remove any thick stems, as they can make the sauce bitter.

Blend the Ingredients: In a food processor or a mortar and pestle, add the basil, toasted nuts, and garlic cloves. Pulse or crush until you get a coarse paste.

Add Cheese and Oil: Gradually add the grated Parmesan cheese and drizzle in the extra virgin olive oil while continuing to blend until you achieve a smooth and creamy consistency.

Season to Taste: Season the pesto with salt and freshly ground black pepper, adjusting to your preferred taste.

Store or Use Immediately: If using immediately, toss the pesto with freshly cooked pasta and enjoy! If storing, transfer the pesto to an airtight container. To preserve its bright green colour, drizzle a thin layer of olive oil over the top before sealing the container.


For a nuttier flavour, you can lightly roast the garlic cloves along with the nuts before blending.

To make the pesto vegan, omit the cheese or replace it with nutritional yeast.

Customise the consistency by adding more olive oil for a thinner sauce or fewer for a thicker, more spreadable pesto.

Now you have a delicious, homemade classic pesto sauce ready to elevate your pasta dishes, sandwiches, salads, or any other creations you desire! Enjoy the burst of fresh Italian flavours in every bite.